Andrews.Neil and Artscape would like to acknowledge the assistance provided by Orange City Council’s Officers and Councillors, O & D Historic Society, Orange
Local Aboriginal Land Council and the community members who participated in the community consultation process.


An understanding of the way in which history and culture are recorded within the landscape can foster a strong and lasting connection of people with place. This project documents the way that the landscape of the Orange Local Government Area (LGA) has been shaped by the ongoing interaction of people and the land. This document provides Orange City Council and the wider community with a tool to understand this “sense of place”.

Andrews.Neil in association with Artscape have been engaged by Orange City Council to explore this relationship through a survey of the significant landscape features within the Orange LGA. The major output of this process is a purpose developed web-based interactive tool that provides:

  •  Three-dimensional modelling of the topography.
  • Diagrammatic analysis of the changing land use from pre-settlement to today
  • Landscape character analysis.
  • Identification and analysis of significant Views and Vistas.
  • Identification and analysis of significant
  • Places and Precincts and the Objects and Elements that characterise those places and precincts.
  • Significant Tree Identification.

Conceptual Framework

Entrance to Dunrty LeagueThis study is based on guidelines for the analysis of the cultural significance of places developed by ICOMOs in the Burra Charter, 1988. Guidelines for landscape and heritage assessment by the various State Heritage bodies have also informed the conceptual framework of this survey. The Burra Charter states that those places which are likely to be of significance are those “which help an understanding of the past or enrich the present, and which will be of value to future generations”.

Views and Vistas were identified having significance where they contained areas with a high diversity of landscape features or visually prominent site features of landform, land cover, waterform or built elements. These may include (but are not limited to), escarpments, ridgelines, vegetation, geological formations, rivers, parks, buildings and building silhouettes.

Significant views and vistas have been included as a part of this study as they are a means by which people interpret their environment and make emotional and physical connections across broad landscape areas.

The Significant tree component of the study identifies plantings that are culturally significant. Cultural significance has been assessed following BURRA Charter guidelines. It should be noted that remnant native vegetation is outside the framework of this study. Trees on residential property have been largely put forward by the community in a voluntary basis and these trees are marked as Residential trees.

Community and Stakeholder Consultation

A central component of this study has been the community and stakeholder consultation process. Orange City Council Officers and Councillors, community groups, the Aboriginal Land Council, businesses and community members have been consulted about their perceptions of significant landscape features and significant trees. This process has also provided the opportunity to engage a wide cross section of the Orange community about the aims and outcomes of the study.

How to Use this Report



Object/Element: The human or natural parts that contribute to the character and significance of a place or precinct.

Place: A place can be a building, a garden, a tree, an archaeological site, a park, a memorial, planting patterns, a recreational area, a precinct, a site or land associated with any of the preceding.

Precinct: “An area that is definable by physical boundaries containing elements and objects that relate to each other to form a single, recognisable entity. The attributes of a precinct are the human and natural places, objects and elements, their distribution and relation to each other, and the history that links them.” (Heritage Victoria, 2002, Landscape Assessment Guidelines for Cultural Heritage Significance)

Tree: “A woody plant of much greater height than the human figure, usually at least 15 ft (4.5 m) though shorter plants may be regarded as trees if they have a single, thick trunk..” (Malone, M., Parker, J (Eds.), 2004, FLORA, The Gardener’s Bible)

Significance: (Australia ICOMOS, 1988, Guidelines to the Burra Charter.) The Burra Charter defines cultural significance as “aesthetic, historic, scientific or social value for past, present or future generations”. Value can be:

  • Aesthetic Value Includes all aspects of sensory perception.
  • Historic Value Encompasses the history of aesthetics, science and society, and therefore underlies most of the values included in significance. A place may have influenced, or have been influenced by, an historic figure, event, phase or activity.
  • Scientific Value The importance of data, its rarity, quality or representative for the field of science.
  • Social Value The qualities for which a place has become a focus of spiritual, political, national or other cultural sentiment to a majority or minority group.

View: “Inspection by eye, survey (of surroundings etc)…” Concise Oxford Dictionary Oxford University Press, 1964

Vista: “Long narrow view as between rows of trees; long succession of remembered or anticipated events etc..” Concise Oxford Dictionary Oxford University Press, 1964


Australia ICOMOS, 1988, Guidelines to the Burra Charter. Available online at www.

Coleman, V., 2003, NSW Heritage Office, Cultural Landscapes Charette, Background Paper.

Cook, K., 2000, Lucknow: A Veritable Goldmine, Local Studies Series, No. 2, Orange City Council.

Cook, K., 2001, A History Springs to Mind: A History of Spring Hill, Orange City Council.

Heritage Victoria, 2002, Landscape Assessment Guidelines for Cultural Heritage Significance.

Malone, M., Parker, J (Eds.), 2004, FLORA, The Gardener’s Bible.

McCrone, Mark D. Landscape Architect, July 2003, “Cook and Robertson Parks: Orange Tree Assessment”.

Miller, J., Holmes, D., Honey, A., 2001, Orange: A Vision Splendid, Orange City Council.

NSW Heritage Office, 2000, Heritage Information Series: Natural Heritage Principles.

NSW Ministry of Energy and Utilities and Orange City Council, 2003, Suma Park Dam Augmentation, Environmental Impact Study.

Orange City Council, Cook Park Draft Plan of Management, compiled by Lyn Gough, Cook Park Supervisor.

Orange City Council, 1960, Orange: 1860- 1960, Orange City Council.

Orange City Council, 1986, Hughes, Trueman, Ludlow Heritage Study, prepared by Hughes, Trueman, Ludlow.

Orange City Council, 1996, Lucknow Village Heritage Analysis and Guidelines for Development Controls, Prepared by Jjoti Somerville.

Orange City Council, 2000, Orange Local Environmental Plan.

Orange City Council, 2001, Interpretation Plan: Wentworth Main Site Mine Shaft, Lucknow, prepared by Kylie Winkworth.

Orange City Council, 2004, Conservation Management Plan: Paterson Memorial Park, Prepared by Ian Jack Heritage Consulting with Siobhan Lavelle and Collen Morris Sarks.

Orange City Council, 2004, Orange Development Control Plan (amended).

Orange City Council, 2003-2006, Orange City Cultural Plan.

Rimas Kabila, P., 1998, Wiradjuri Places: The Macquarie River Basin and Some Places Revisited, Vol. 3, Black Mountain Projects.

Sarks, E., 2005, Watermarks: Picture Research.

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